Italy

Regions

Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn’t until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC.

It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in AD 92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production.

During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where trade was intense, according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian wine, drinking it unmixed and without restraint. It was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life.

As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul (present day France) and Hispania. This coincided with the cultivation of new vines, like Biturica (ancestor of Cabernet). These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for provincial wines.

Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world’s largest or second largest wine producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy’s share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32%, Australia’s was 24%, and France’s was 20%. Along with Australia, Italy’s market share has rapidly increased in recent years.

Abruzzo

Abruzzo (Abruzzi) is an Italian wine region located in the mountainous central Italian region of Abruzzo along the Adriatic Sea. It is bordered by the…

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Campania

Campania, the “shin” of Italy’s boot, is the wine growing area around Naples where, since Roman times, vines have thrived in the volcanic soils. This…

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Lazio

Lazio is a ‘Central’ wine region bordering Tuscany, Umbria and Marche to the north, Abruzzo to the east and Campania to the south. The region is mainly flat and…

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Piedmonte

The North West region of Piedmonte is Italy’s pre-eminent area, making top wines such as Barolo and Gavi and showcasing grape varietals such as Cortese,…

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Puglia

Puglia is a long, thin wine region in the far South-East; the ‘heel’ of Italy‘s boot. The region is responsible for almost half of Italy’s…

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Sicily

Much of Sicily lies at a more southerly latitude than Tunisia, and it is the hottest, driest region of Italy. Sicily is Italy’s up and…

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Tuscany

Tuscany is a major region around Florence and Sienna. It is best known for Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano which are primarily…

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Veneto

Veneto in the North East is the home of some of Italy’s most famous names – Soave, Valpolicella, Bardolino – but also the region growing…

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